...法庭上跟法官聲明自己無罪，在課堂上和獲得過諾貝爾政治學獎的教授滔滔雄辯。 Declare oneself's not guilty with the judge on the law court, on the classroom with acquired the surging...
That's right. Be convicted is a matter of whether you are guilty or not. Be sentenced is a matter of how severe the punishment will be upon conviction. So they are different stages of judicial process.
...to be (+verb transit)=blamed/found guilty/doomed/declared unfit/ Condemned verb transitive natured. eg.... No; Your application is Not going to be approved.