"A" ruler of France? Why didn't Helen ask "為什麼不用加...
Rulers of nations quake with fear as king demands their fealty, and they realize that their doom has arrived 國王要求各國統治者宣誓效忠的時候，他們都嚇得發抖，而且知道要大難臨頭了。
Jay usually uses a ruler to help him (to) glue the photos to some paper. 這裡的glue是bare infinitive...